ROMANESQUE

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Emerged during the 11th century. Florished 12th, giving way to Proto Gothic. Slow taking place in Italy, France, Germany and Spain. Political stability, economic growth, reform of religious institutions created an enviroment in which Romanesque art begins.
Revival in Germany (Ottonian Art), Holy German Empire and Papacy, triumpant Papacy, Crusades reconquest of Holy Land, Sicily and partial Spain from Moors all started in the 11th century.
Germany Political Power, Strong centralized government in France, Norman rule in East? (Hastings 1066)
Intellectualism in monestaries. 12th century this moves to universities 12th cent Renaissance.
Most Romanesque art destroyed in East during Reformation and later by Puritanism.
In East Normanism synonymous with Romanesque, bad other influences: Early Christian, Byzantine, Carolingian, Ottonian and Islamic.