ROSE+CROIX

H

MEMBERS

Sar Peladan (1858(6?)-1918?)
Carlos Schwabe (1866-1926)
Charles Filiger (1863-1928)
Fernand Khnopff
Antoine De La Rochefoucauld
Alphonse Osbert
Marcellin Desboutin
Armand Point
Alexandre Seon (1855-1917)
Edgard Maxence
Edmond Aman-Jean
Jean Delville

OVERVIEW

Sar Peladan and Stanislas de Guaita (occultist) revived Rosicrucianism which began with the 15th Century visionary Christian Rosenkreuz.

The Manifesto of the Rose+Croix first appeared in Le Figaro September 2, 1891. The corrected version was republished in Le Panthee 1892? The third to the last paragraph, "We believe neither in progress or salvation. For the Latin race which is about to die, we prepare a last splendor, in order to dazzle and soften the barbarians who are coming."

Exhibitions from 1892-7. Source 1 has lists of artists who exhibited each year.

JOSE'PHIN PELADAN (P)

Born 28 March 1858 (sometimes reported 1856 or 1859) in Lyon to le Chevalier Adrian Peladan (born 8 September 1825). His father married in Nimes, 2 August 1843. His older brother Doctor Adrien Peladan fils was born 18 June 1844. The brother self poisoned himself experimenting with medicines 29 September 1885.

1881

March he traveled with friend Albert Marigan to Pisa, Milan, Rome and Florence.

1890

Breaks with Rosicrucian circle proper. (Barbey circle?) In August announces Rose+Croix+Catholique in Initiation. Governing council mentioned: Count Leonce de Larmandie and the Count of Tammuz, doubtless Antoine de la Rochefoucould (La R), the editor of Initiation, and Papus sat meetings of the dissident society.

1891

April: Sar not allowed to sit at Barbey's deathbed. His eulogy praised his old master. The big issue was Sar was against Eastern occult influences in his Catholic occultism (Gnosticism)

May: Comments on the Salon 91 in his article Le Salon Dixieme Annee Praises Desboutin, Armand Point, Seon, Holder, Khnopff, Carriere, Alphonse Osbert, and Puvis.

Following article was Actae Rosae Crucis. Announces formation of Rose+Croix du Temple directed by himself, Gary de Lacroze, Count Antoine de la Rochefoucauld (La R), Leonce de Larmandie. Secret members: Sin, Adar and Samas. Also explained the aims of the group and first mention of the Salon de la Rose+Croix.

June: he published his novel Le Gynandre and dedicated it to Desboutin.

September: Manifesto is published. See above

P linked somewhat favorably to Huysmans and particuarily Bourget by the vogue critical study done by Francois Paulham, Le Nouveau Mysticisme in which all four figures are cited. G Albert Aurier's assessment of the Symbolist movement, "Le Symbolisme en Peinture, Paul Gauguin" published in Mercure de France list the five qualifications. They correspond with P's art theories.

1892

A revue by Octave Uzanne called L'Art et L'Idee expressed tendencies similar to that of the Salons de Rose+Croix. The frontpiece of the revue was done by Carlos Schwabe.

The first of six Rose+Croix salons which happen in consecutive years until 1897. I believe it opened the first or the tenth of March. The poster is done by Carlos Schwabe. His frontpiece for the above article and fifteen other works were shown. 63 exhibitors, the most characteristic of were Armand Point, Alexandre Seon, and Alphonse Osbert. Held in Durand-Ruel's Gallery. 2000 press invites plus those to special individuals. 22,600 visiting cards left. Moreau, Puvis, Zola and Verlaine were present. Welcomed in the hall by Manet. Parisal was played. Two catalogs. Twenty franc admission and a gold Louis for the first two hours.

Days after the opening, on March 17th P's three act play was poorly received. La R would not pay for the other two performances that were scheduled.(Or was it two different plays?) The evening of Wagner was conducted by Lamoureux, while P wanted Benedictus whom he felt La R ran off. La R announces break with P in the April publication of Affiches Parisiennes. The break with La R causes financial problems for R+C and Durand-Ruel would not hold the next exhibition at his gallery because it drew too many people.

P goes to Belgium.

1893

January 3rd - Boullan dies in Lyon.

March 28 - April 30    Second Rose+Croix Exhibition

The were allowed to exhibit in the Palais du Champ de Mars which is the home of the official Salon. P's four act tradegy Babylon performed five times. This exhibition was not altogether that successful.

1894

The third (and fourth) exhibition was held in a rented commercial space, Galerie des artistes contemporains on rue de la Paix. P had to borrow money. The Salons had become synonymous with Symbolism. The catalog was a booklet. The poster was supposedly by Gabriel Albinet, but is lost. 70 odd works shown. More than 10,000 visitors. It ran the same time as the Official Salon. P wrote reviews for both for four days. He criticized Puvis (curator of the Salon?)  in his placement of "Rosecruesque" work in a dark corner while his new mediocre work was displayed prominently. To no avail P had invited these "Rosecruesque" Salon artists to show at his Salon.

Deville arranges his own Rosicrucian Idealist Example in Belgium.

Heartily publishing occult tracts and novels through 93 and 94.

1895

20 March - April 20 4th Exhibition. Same location as last year. No catalog, no poster. 100 odd works, 36 participants.

1896

January his article in L'Emitage, "Gustave Moreau", rails Moreau.

January 11 he marries niece of Leonce de Larmandie, Constance-Josephine de Malet-Roquefont. Widow and mother and the Countess Le Roy de Barde. They were unhappy and it did not last.

5th Salon de la Rose+Croix

1897

The last of the six Rose+Croix salons.

1901

Second marriage to English divorcee Christiane Taylor and shortly thereafter his ex-wife dies.

 

SOURCES

1)    Occult Symbolism in France. (A book in the National Art Library, Victoria & Albert Museum, London.)

The Count of Gabalis or Conferences about Secret Societies MDCLXXX (1680) London Translated by A.L.A.M. in the National Art Library, London.
Gauguin's Nirvana: painters at Le Pouldu 1889-1990. ed. Eric M. Zafran.
Histoire des Rose+Croix, Paul Sedir, Paris: Librairse du XX Siecle, 1910.Robert Pincu-Witten, Occult Symbolism in France: Jose'phin Peladan and the Salons de la Rose-croix. New York, Garland Publishers, 1976.