EXHIBITIONS, SOCIETIES, SCHOOLS AND GALLERIES

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1750    1850    1880    1890    1900    1910

1648

France

Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture)
Founded.

1660

France

Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture)
Reformed by Lebrun and Colbert in the early 1660's

1664

France

Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Paris
Initiated by Colbert during the reign of Louis the 14th. Art associated with the state. Used the guild system from the middle ages and apprenticeship. Dissolved 1793.

1667

Salon
Official exhibition of art sponsored by the French government originated when Louis XIV sponsored an exhibit of the works of the members of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. The Salon derives its name from the exhibition's location in the Salon d'Apollon of the Louvre Palace. After 1737 it became an annual event, and in 1748 the jury system of selection was introduced. During the French Revolution, the Salon was opened to all French artists, though academicians continued to maintain near-total control over the teaching and exhibition of art through most of the 19th century. In 1881 the new Société des Artistes Français began to oversee the Salon, and with the growing importance of independent exhibitions of the works of avant-garde artists, it gradually lost its influence and prestige.

1750

 

1768

Britain

Royal Academy, London
Founded

1795

France

Ecole des Beaux Artes, Paris
Founded

1816

France

Academie des Beaux-Arts
Creation of a special Prix de Rome for historical landscape. It continued to be awarded until 1863.

1824

France

Paris Salon
Revelation of Constable and the English landscape painters.

1831

France

Paris Salon
Triumph of Romanticism in France. Barye, Diaz, Dupre and Rouseau exhibit for the first time.

1833

France

Paris Salon
Corot wins second class medal.

1842

France

Paris Salon
Corot's Italian Landscape exhibited and purchased by the State for the Avignon Museum

1848

France

Paris Salon
Corot elected member of the selection committee and awarded second-class medal. A second Italian Landscape is purchased by the State for the Douai Museum.

1849

France

Paris Salon
Corot elected a member of the jury and the State buys his Christ in the Garden of Olives for the Langres Museum.

Britain

Hyde Park Gallery
Rossetti (the first signed with P.R.B.)

Royal Academy Exhibition
Millais and Holman Hunt (the first signed with P.R.B.)

1850

Britain

Royal Academy Exhibition
Millais and Holman Hunt (no Rossetti)

1855

France

Paris World's Fair
Emperor buys Corot's Souvenir of Marcoussis for his private collection.

1861

Austria

Kunstlerhausgenosssenschaft (Genossenschaft bildender Kunstler Wiens), Vienna
An exhibiting society founded under the presidency of the architect August Siccardsburg.

1863

France

Salon de Refuses
Art exhibition held 17 May in Paris by command of Napoleon III for those artists whose works had been refused by the jury of the official Salon. Also held 74, 75, and 86. Among the exhibitors were Camille Pissarro, Henri Fantin-Latour, James M. Whistler, and Édouard Manet, whose scandalous Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe was officially regarded as an affront to taste.

Academie des Beaux-Arts
The last year the special Prix de Rome for historical landscape was awarded. It was created in 1816.

1864

France

Salon, Paris
Moreau makes first real impact with Oedipus. Corot is a member of the admission committee.

1867

France

Paris World's Fair
Corot exhibits and is awarded a second class medal. Promoted to the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honor.

1868

Austria

School of Applied Arts (Kunstgewerbeschule)
The Austrian Museum for Art and Industry modeled this school after the satellite school of the South Kensington Museum in London.

1869

France

Salon, Paris
Moreau attacked by the critics

1870

France

Salon, Paris
Corot elected a member of the jury.

1872

France

Salon, Paris
Moreau

1873

France

Academie Julian, Paris
Began by Rodolphe Julian. The Academie Suisse provided models. Prepared students for the Ecole des Beaux Artes. Flexible teaching. Students there: Moore, George Rothenstein, Louis Corinth. Gauguin met with many of the students At cafes. Frequented by Cezanne, Pissarro, Monet and Guillaumin.

1874

France

Salon de Refuses
Second. (The first was 1863)

Impressionism Exhibition, Paris
First

1875

France

Salon de Refuses

1876

France

Salon, Paris
Moreau

1880

France

Salon, Paris
Moreau’s last  

1881

France

Société des artistes français
Set up and takes over responsibility for the Salon.

Union des femmes
Peintres et sculpteurs formed and holds own Salons.

1882

France

Exposition des arts incoherents
First organised. Exhibitions were held in Paris until 1892 as a mockery of the 'official' Salon. It had illustrated catalogues which parodied the official 'Salon illustré'.

1884

France

Societe des Artistes Independents
Forms in Paris (by Redon and Seurat?) and holds annual unjuried exhibitions. Organized as a second Salon des Refusés, it was established in response to the rigid traditionalism of the official government-sponsored Salon. Its first show exhibited works by Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Vincent van Gogh, and Georges Seurat. By 1905 Henri Rousseau, Pierre Bonnard, Henri Matisse, and the Fauves had all exhibited there.

Belgium

Les XX in Brussels holds first annual exhibition which last for 10 years.

1885

France

Ecole des Beaux Artes, Paris
Bernard enters school of Decortifs

Academy Cormon
Bernard, Toulouse-Lautrec, Van Gogh, Anquetin

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1886

France

Impressionists Exhibition
Last. Seurat's Sunday Afternoon at La Grande Jatte shown.

Salon des Indepandants
Second. Seurat's Sunday Afternoon at La Grande Jatte shown for second time. (First at last Impressionist Exhibition a couple months earlier)

Salon de Refuses

Pont Aven
Gauguin's first trip to Brittany.

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1887

France

Pont Aven
Gauguin, Bernard

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1888

France

Lycee Condorcet
Denis, Vuillard, Roussel and Serusier?

Academy Julian
Ranson

Pont Aven
Gauguin, Serusier, Bernard

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1889

France

Academy Julian
late spring Vuillard and Roussel enter

Pont Aven
Gauguin, Serusier

Café Volpini Exhibition, Paris
Gauguin and company, including Serusier

International Exhibition, Paris
Max Liebermann led a group which participated.

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

Germany

Alliance of Eleven (Vereinigung der Elf), Berlin
Founded by Max Liebermann, Walter Leistikow, Ludwig von Hoffmann and Franz Skarbina in February.

Society of Fine Artists (Verein Bildender Kunstler), Berlin
Invited Munch (Norwegian) to hang 50 paintings and he did. The exhibition was then canceled by a ballet vote of 120 to 105 proposed by Anton von Werner.

1890

France

Pont Aven
Serusier, Gauguin, Maufra

Le Pouldu
Gauguin, Filliger, Maufra

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1891

France

Salon
Armand Point, Seon, Holder, Khnopff, Carriere, Alphonse Osbert, Puvis

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

1892

France

Rose+Croix Exhibition at Durand-Ruel's gallery, Paris
The First. 63 exhibitors including Armand Point, Alexandre Seon, Alphonse Osbert, Filiger, Valloton,  and 16 works by Schwabe.

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

Germany

The Munich Secession, Society Against the Association of Artists (Gegenverein zur Kunstlergenossenschaft)
Founded by Fritz von Uhde, Hugo von Habermann and Franz von Stuck.

1893

France

'Peintres impressionistes et symbolistes' at Le Barc de Boutteville's Gallery
The fifth exhibition. Nabis (including Ronai)

Rose+Croix
Held at the Palais de Champ de Mars (site of the official Salon)

Belgium

Les XX exhibition

Germany

Dresden Secession
Founded by Gotthardt Kuhl. Held annual exhibitions.

1894

France

Pont Aven
Seguin, Gauguin

Salon du Champ-de-Mars
Ronai

Rose+Croix
Held at Galerie des artistes contemporains, a rented commercial space. 70 odd works.

Austria

Third International Exhibition
Vienna

1895

France

Salon de Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts
Newly founded. Seven Matisse accepted

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
Cezanne

Barc de Bouteville
Seguin

Rose+Croix
Held at Galerie des artistes contemporains, a rented commercial space. 100 odd works, 36 participants.

1896

France

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
possibly Cezanne

Rose+Croix

1897

France

Salon de Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts
Matisse receives a bad hanging for his The Dinner Table as it was towards the impressionist style.

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
possibly Cezanne

Rose+Croix
last

Austria

Vienna Secession
Founded by Klimt with a periodical Ver scrum.

1898

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
possibly Cezanne

Germany

Lehrte railway station, Berlin
A picture by Leistikow was refused

Berlin Secession
The “Eleven” expanded to form it with Max Liebermann as president. Members include: Max Beckmann, Barlach, Feininger, Kandinsky, Kollwitz, Munch, Nolde, Amiet, Bonnard, Denis, Matisse, Rohlfs. Guests included: the Fauves, the Brucke, Munich, and the New Artists Association

Munich Schools
Neo-Dachau group and Scholle (“Clod) group form.

Other German Artistic Settlements
Began in Worpswede and Goppeln (near Dresden)

Austria

Vienna Secession
First and Second Exhibitions

1899

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
Cezanne?

Austria

Vienna Secession
Third, Fourth and Fifth Exhibitions

1900

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Ambroise Vollard Gallery
Cezanne?

Austria

Vienna Secession
Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Exhibitions

1901

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Salon de l'Sociate Nationale
Denis' Homage to Cezanne

Germany

Berlin Secession
Van Gogh, Cezanne

Phalanx Group, Munich
Formed, Kandinsky was president in 02.

Austria

Vienna Secession
Ninth - Twelfth Exhibitions

1902

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Germany

Berlin Secession
72? works, including 28? Munch, Kandinsky and Kubin

Folkwang (Folkhall), Hagen, Westphalia
A museum founded by 24 year old Karl Ernst Osthaus

Austria

Vienna Secession
Thirteenth - Fifteenth Exhibitions

1903

France

Salon d’Automne
First

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Germany

Berlin Secession
Cezanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin and Munch

Phalanx, Munich
Led by Kandinsky. Exhibition of Belgian and French PI in December. Included: Signac, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Van Rysselberghe, Van Gogh

Austria

Vienna Secession
Sixteenth - Eighteenth Exhibitions. Sixteenth was the Impressionist show.

1904

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Salon d’Automne
Cezanne

Austria

Vienna Secession
of note the Nineteenth Exhibition

1905

France

Vincent van Gogh retrospective somewhere

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Cezanne?

Salon d’Automne
Cezanne, 10 Kandinsky's, Jawlensky. Also Kirchner? The Fauves.

Germany

The Gallery Arnold, Germany
50 Van Gogh's, 132 Belgium and French PI.

Der Brucke, Dresden
Formed by four students of architecture: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Gritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.

Austria

Vienna Secession
of note the Twenty-third Exhibition

1906

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Matisse's Bonheur de vivre or Joy of Life (1905-6)
Cezanne?

Salon d’Automne
Cezanne.
Gauguin had a large retrospective.
?Kandinsky, Jawlensky, Kirchner?
The Fauves?

Germany

The Gallery Arnold
Bernard, Denis, Gauguin, Vallotton, Seurat, Cross, Signac

Sachsischer Kunstuerein
20 Munch

1907

France

Salon des Independants (Spring)
Braque's Paysage de l'Estaque and L'Estaque

Salon d'Automne
Cezanne Retrospective - 56 works.

Germany

Sachsischer Kunstuerein
Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Denis

Austria

Vienna Secession
Kunstlerhaus (House of Artists) and independents

Miethke's Gallery, Vienna
large van Gogh exhibition
also showed Klimt's University paintings this year

1908

France

Wilhelm Uhde's Notre-Dame-des-Champs Gallery
Picasso, Braque, Metzinger in December

Germany

Kunstssalon Richter
Retro Van Gogh, Van Dongen, Vlaminck, Guerin Friesz

Austria

Kunstschau, Vienna
Summer, Klimt, Metzner, Roller, Czeschka, work of the Wiener Werkstatte, Loffler, Moser, Wagner, Hoffmann and Kokoschka

Klosterneuburg
Schiele's public debut

1909

Germany

The New Artists Alliance (Die Neue Kunstleruereinigung), Munich
This group formed: President is Kandinsky along with Munter, Jawlensky, Werefkin, Kanoldt and Erbsloh. They exhibited at the Thannhauser Gallery and toured several German towns.

Sonderbund Westdeuscher Kunstfreunde und Kunstler (Special League of Art Lovers and Artists in West Germany), Düsseldorf
1st exhibit: alternated German and French paintings.

Austria

New Art Group, Vienna
Founded by Schiele and others, exhibit in December at the Salon Pisko.

Kunstschau, Vienna
Austrian and European avant-garde painting, French: van Gogh, Gauguin, the Nabis Bonnard, Vuillard and Denis, Fauves Vlaminck and Matisse. Swiss Cuno Amiet, Norwegian Munch, German sculptor Ernst Barlach. Klimt showed Judith II (Salome 1909) and Hope I (1903). Schiele makes Viennese debut with four paintings.

1910

France

Salon d’Automne
Critic Roger Allard indentified Fauconnier, Gleizes and Metzinger as progenitors of a new movement. (See Cubism)

Wilhelm Uhde's Notre-Dame-des-Champs Gallery
Picasso exhibition in May

Ambroise Vollard's Gallery
Picasso exhibition from December to February 1911.

Germany

Berlin Secession
Nolde and Pechstein along with 25 other artist’s submissions rejected. Nolde calls on Lieberman to resign as president. Nolde is expelled.

Neue Secession
Initiated by Pechstein. 15 artists join including Der Brucke, (Nolde) and Rohlfs.

Thannhauser Gallery, Munich
The New Artists Alliance’s 2nd Exhibition. Also toured several German towns.
Also invited Marc, Braque, Picasso, Rouault, Derain, Vlaminck, Van Dongen, Alfred Kubin, among others including sculptors.

Sonderbund, Düsseldorf
2nd exhibition: Brucke, Kandinsky, Jawlensky, Bonnard, Signac, Fauves, Picasso

Austria

New Art Group Exhibition, Vienna
Second exhibition.

1911

France

Salon des Independants
Fauconnier, Gleizes, Metzinger, Laurencin, Leger, Delaunay created a succes de scandale by exhibiting together as Cubists. La Fresnaye showed in a room adjacent to the Cubist room.

Germany

Neue Secession
November: 4th and last exhibition

Berlin Secession
Braque, Dufy, Picasso

Thannhauser Gallery, Munich
New Artist’s Alliance's third exhibition but Kandinsky, Munter and Marc had left. They had begun the Blue Rider group and also exhibited haphazardly as they had just left with 43 works including Henri Rousseau, Albert Bloch, the Bruljuk brothers, Campendonk, and Delaunay.

Sonderbund, Düsseldorf
Der Brucke, Kandinsky, Jawlensky, Bonnard, Signac, Fauves, Picasso

Italy

International Art Exhibition, Rome
Klimt honored, many important works including The Kiss, Jurisprudence and Portrait of Emilie Floge

1912

Germany

Sonderbund Exhibition, Cologne
International exhibition. French and German art. Dissolved in 1913, see 1913. Included Schiele.

Strum Exhibition (Gallery?), Berlin
The first exhibit at Walden’s new Gallery. The 1st Blue Rider exhibition (see Thannhauser's Gallery in 1911) was displayed along with Klee, Kubin, Jawlensky and Werefkin. Kokoschka also. Handled the Futurists 2nd exhibition. The exhibitions changed every month. Thousands of visitors a day. Held 100 exhibitions by 1921.

Hans Goltz’s Gallery Neue Kunst, Munich
2nd Blue Rider Exhibition. Also all the artists from the 1st exhibition (See Thannhauser Gallery in 1911) and Braque, Derain, Picasso, Vlaminck, der Brucke, Hans Arp, Klee, Kubin, Nolde, Kasimir, Malevich, and Schiele.

Munich Secession
Includes Schiele

1913

Germany

Berlin Secession
Includes Der Brucke. The Secession breaks up for the last time. Majority of members reform as Freie (Free) Secession.

Die Friedfertigen (The Peace lovers), Bonn
Some of the artists that exhibited over the past for years at the Sonderbund exhibitions, which is now dissolved. Rheinische Expressionisten.

Gallery Neue Kunst, Munich
Dealer/Owner Hans Goltz shows a collection of Schiele's in June and July

Austria

Vienna Secession
43rd in January and February shows six Schiele's.

Hungary

Bund Oesterreichischer Kunstler, Budapest
Elect Schiele a member of the society and he participates in their March Exhibition.

1914

Germany

Free Secession, Berlin
1st exhibition. The remaining members after the final breakup of the Berlin Secession last year. Cassirer (art dealer) bought paintings to exhibit to stay ahead of Walden’s Herbstsalon.

German Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne
An impressive Austrian contribution including Schiele.

Austria

Galerie Arnot, Vienna
Collective exhibition of Schiele from December to January 1915.

1915

 

1916

 

1917

 

1918

Germany

Novembergruppe, Berlin
Co founded by Pechstein

Berliner Arbeitsrat fur Kunst (Berlin Worker’s Soviet for Art)
Formed in 1918, gone by 1921.

Austria

Vienna Secession
Beginning of the year: Forty-ninth exhibition for Schiele and friends. S sold The Family.
Portrait exhibition in autumn, invited Schiele

Galerie Arnos
June. Collection of Schiele drawings.

Switzerland

Kunsthaus, Zurich
'A Century of Viennese Painting' Exhibition, Schiele shown.

1919

Germany

Bauhaus
School of design opened in Weimer by Walter Gropius.

Das junge Rheinland (Young Rheinland), Düsseldorf
Otto Dix one of the starting members.